Development of Ports and Harbours may involve construction of structures like breakwaters, jetties, reclamation bunds etc. and may also involve dredging to maintain depth of navigation. These projects are required to obtain Environment/ Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) clearance from the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) and/or State Coastal Zone Management Authority (CZMA) as applicable as per the norms. As stipulated by MoEF&CC and CZMA, studies like Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environment Management Plan (EMP) are undertaken as a part of the development of the projects. Based on the studies for the project, requisite mitigation measures to protect the environment are undertaken.Coastal erosion may be caused due to natural causes such as cyclones, persistent low pressure, increased wave activity, sea-level rise etc. as well as developmental activities along the coast. As coastal areas are subjected to erosion due to various reasons, coastal protection measures such as hard/soft/hybrid structures are being employed like beach nourishment, submerged reef, natural plantations and seawalls, groins, offshore breakwaters based on site specific scientific studies for addressing the aspect of coastal erosion.In order to ensure sustainable development of Ports, Maritime India Vision (MIV) 2030 was released which envisages development of Ports with safeguard for environment protection by adopting sustainable methodologies. The dredging guidelines for Major Ports has been released by the Ministry to ensure implementation of dredging projects with optimum utilization of the resources and re-use of dredged material for sustainable development of ports in the country.

The list of total Major and non Major Ports, State / UT- wise, is given below:

State/UT Total Non Major Ports Total Major ports
Andhra Pradesh 15 1
Goa 5 1
Gujarat 48 1
Karnataka 12 1
Kerala 17 1
Maharashtra 48 2
Odisha 14 1
Tamil Nadu 17 3
West Bengal 2 1
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 24
Daman & Diu 2
Puducherry 3
Lakshadweep 10

This information was given by Union Minister for Ports, Shipping and Waterways Shri Sarbananda Sonowal in a written reply in Lok Sabha yesterday.