Several major maritime players include AP Moller Maersk, Fleet Management, Keppel Offshore & Marine, Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Center for Zero Carbon Shipping, Sumitomo Corporation and Yara International have entered into a memorandum of understanding to jointly conduct a feasibility study on the development of a comprehensive and competitive supply chain for the provision of green ammonia ship-to-ship bunkering at the Port of Singapore, the largest bunkering port in the world.

The study aims to cover the entire end-to-end supply chain of ammonia bunkering, which includes the development of a cost-effective green ammonia supply chain, design of ammonia bunkering vessels, as well as related supply chain infrastructure. Relevant government agencies and experts in Singapore will also be engaged in working towards the standardization of safe operation and regulations.

The study will assess the supply of ammonia including potential synergies with LPG as a starting point. Considering the comparable requirements for mild refrigerated storage, vessels or barges initially designed for LPG can also handle brown, blue and green ammonia.

“Alongside methanol, at A P Moller-Maersk we see green ammonia as an important future fuel for the decarbonisation of our fleet. A dual fuel Ammonia engine is currently under development, but for green ammonia to fuel our vessels in the future we also have supply, infrastructure and safety related challenges to solve, not least when it comes to bunkering operations. We are pleased to work with renowned companies in this field to pave the way for Ammonia as a future fuel to decarbonise global shipping,” said Morten Bo Christiansen, VP and head of decarbonisation at AP Moller-Maersk.

“There are multiple routes to the decarbonisation of the marine industry and we are pleased to be able to leverage our expertise in engineering and bunkering to spearhead the development of cleaner marine fuels such as ammonia. This includes the design of ammonia bunkering and ammonia-powered vessels, as well as developing the value chain necessary for the adoption of ammonia. This is in line with Keppel’s Vision 2030, which includes seizing opportunities in new energy,” said Chris Ong, CEO of Keppel Offshore & Marine.